Hard martial arts

Those martial methods whose techniques rely on superior force and strength to defeat inferior strength. Practices of the hard martial arts are aimed at making the body as hard as steel, especially the arms and legs. Hard approaches may be used in both internal (hsing-i, for example) and exter-nal schools, but prevail mostly in the external martial arts.

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I recently returned from a three week instructor training in a chi gung practice called “Gods Playing in the Clouds”. This intensive was held at Menlo College near San Francisco and I’d like to share some details about my experience.


Frank Iborra